Anecdotal story time! My first experience with a corneal abrasion and where I learned the term was in high school. The guy sitting next to me said something “smart” to a girl across the table at lunch who proceeded to fling (poorly) a pizza crust at him which came to find me instead. As the “corneal” bit may imply, I got smacked square in the eye and couldn’t see properly for the rest of the day. When it still hadn’t fixed by the next morning I decided to see the school nurse who diagnosed it. With that said:
A corneal abrasion is a scratch on your cornea which is the clear and protective covering over your iris. It acts as a sort of window and lens to both protect and help you see. A scratched cornea can hurt a lot if it’s something like sand that’s caught in your eyelid and it’s best to touch it as little as possible. If it is from dirt or sand, flush your eye with water.
If it’s particularly bad, a doctor may give you eye drops that can prevent infection, however, scratches typically heal on their own over time (anywhere from a day to a month). If the scratch is particularly bad, however, you can risk corneal infections, cornea erosion or even scarring of the cornea. These are all of course problems that can lead to vision problems. Always check with the doctor if you think you have a corneal abrasion so it can be properly diagnosed and treated if necessary. 

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